458. POLITICAL SCIENCE. and " my kingdom is not of this world ; if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight that I should not be delivered to the Jews/' together with the obvious freedom of soul and intelligent thought inspired by his religion, would have come into opposition to the central despotism. With these opposing forces the spirit of nationality would have made common cause, and the despotism or the religion with the national feeling would have been overthrown. We may say, then, that a strict Christian theocracy, an absolute con- solidation of church and state was impossible. The second form of relation between the two is that of co- existence in a condition of separation, where, however, the church power claims some decided pre-eminence over the state, as having the most important interests of men in its hands, and the state becomes practically dependent. Under a third form the church is politically dependent on the state, as an establishment by law, with or without the toleration of dissenters. A fourth form appears where the church and the state are in great measure independent, except so far as the church, like any association, is protected in its rights by the courts and laws, or the rights of others are defended from its ag- gressions. 5. A French writer, Prof. A. Franck,* proposes another form, in which the state, and a church or confession, form an alliance or concordat; the confession, through its hierarchy at least, taking the oath of fidelity to the state, and thus be- coming pledged against receiving from abroad, on any pretext or in any form, any order or decree contrary to the laws of the country, and for which permission has not been first re- ceived ; while the country through its authorities engages not to intermeddle in the spiritual affairs of the confession, and to give it protection. This is demanded for the security of the state, especially against new or unknown religious socie- ties, but the author would extend the plan to all that exist in * Philos. du droit ecclesiastique, part iv., chap. 4., 20-36.